LED lights and their light-emitting principles and characteristics | top quality led linear light

LED lamp and its light-emitting principle 1. LED structure and light-emitting principle
People have understood the basic knowledge that semiconductor materials can produce light 50 years ago, and the first commercial diode was produced in 1960. LED is the abbreviation of English light emitting diode (light emitting diode), its basic structure is a piece of electroluminescent semiconductor material, placed on a leaded shelf, and then sealed with epoxy resin around to protect the internal core wire Function, so the seismic performance of the LED is good.
  
The core part of the light-emitting diode is a wafer composed of a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor. There is a transition layer between the p-type semiconductor and the n-type semiconductor, which is called a p-n junction. In the PN junction of certain semiconductor materials, when the injected minority carriers and the majority carriers recombine, the excess energy is released in the form of light, thereby directly converting electrical energy into light energy. With reverse voltage applied to the PN junction, it is difficult to inject minority carriers, so it does not emit light. This kind of diode made by injection electroluminescence principle is called light-emitting diode, commonly known as LED. When it is in a positive working state (that is, a positive voltage is applied to both ends), when the current flows from the LED anode to the cathode, the semiconductor crystal emits light of different colors from ultraviolet to infrared. The intensity of the light is related to the current.
   2. Features of LED light source
1. Voltage: LED uses a low-voltage power supply, the power supply voltage is between 6-24V, depending on the product, so it is a safer power supply than the high-voltage power supply, especially suitable for public places.
2. Efficiency: Energy consumption is reduced by 80% compared with incandescent lamps with the same luminous efficiency
3. Applicability: small, each unit LED chip is 3-5mm square, so it can be prepared into various shapes of devices, and is suitable for variable environments
4. Stability: 100,000 hours, the light decay is 50% of the initial
5. Response time: the response time of the incandescent lamp is milliseconds, and the response time of the LED lamp is nanoseconds
6. Environmental pollution: no harmful metal mercury
7. Color: changing the current can change the color. The light-emitting diode can easily adjust the energy band structure and band gap of the material through chemical modification methods to achieve red, yellow, green, blue, and orange multicolor light. For example, when the current is small, the LED is red, as the current increases, it can turn into orange, yellow, and finally green.
8. Price: LEDs are more expensive. Compared with incandescent lamps, the price of a few LEDs can be equivalent to the price of an incandescent lamp. Usually, each group of signal lamps needs to be composed of 300-500 diodes.
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